below is a list of the research used to create this website:

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Bragaru, M. Sport prostheses and prosthetic adaptations for the upper and lower limb amputees: an overview of peer reviewed literature. Prosthetics and orthotics international. 2012;36(3):290–296. doi:10.1177/0309364612447093.

Buckley, JG. Biomechanical adaptations of transtibial amputee sprinting in athletes using dedicated prostheses. Clinical Biomechanics. 2000;15(5):352–358. doi:10.1016/S0268-0033(99)00094-7.

Buckley, JG. Sprint kinematics of athletes with lower-limb amputations. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1999;80(5):501–508. doi:10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90189-2.

Burkett, B, Smeathers, J, Barker, T. Optimising the trans‐femoral prosthetic alignment for running, by lowering the knee joint. Prosthet Orthot Int Prosthetics and Orthotics International. 2001;25(3):210–219. doi:10.1080/03093640108726604.

Crowell, HP, Davis, IS. Gait retraining to reduce lower extremity loading in runners. Clinical Biomechanics. 2011;26(1):78–83. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.09.003.

Crowell, HP, Milner, CE, Hamill, J, Davis, IS. Reducing Impact Loading During Running With the Use of Real-Time Visual Feedback. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2010;40(4):206–213. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3166.

Curran, SA, Hirons, R. Preparing our Paralympians: research and development at Ossur, UK. Prosthetics and Orthotics International . 2012;36(3):366–369. doi:10.1177/0309364612453256.

Davis, IS. The Re-emergence of the Minimal Running Shoe. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2014;44(10):775–784. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5521.

Devan, H, Carman, A, Hendrick, P, Hale, L, Ribeiro, DC. Spinal, pelvic, and hip movement asymmetries in people with lower-limb amputation: Systematic review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development J Rehabil Res Dev. 2015;52(1):1–20. doi:10.1682/jrrd.2014-05-0135.

Devan, H, Hendrick, P, Ribeiro, DC, Hale, LA, Carman, A. Asymmetrical movements of the lumbopelvic region: Is this a potential mechanism for low back pain in people with lower limb amputation? Medical Hypotheses. 2014;82(1):77–85. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2013.11.012.

Feldman, DR, Gonzalez-Fernandez, M, Singla, AA, Krabak, BJ, Singh, S. The Hip and Pelvis in Sports Medicine and Primary Care. Seidenberg PH, Bowen JD, eds., eds. The Hip and Pelvis in Sports Medicine and Primary Care. 2010. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-5788-7_9.

Ferrara, MS, Peterson, CL. Injuries to Athletes With Disabilities. Sports Medicine. 2000;30(2):137–143. doi:10.2165/00007256-200030020-00006.

Flint, JH, Wade, AM, Stocker, DJ, Pasquina, PF, Howard, RS, Potter, BK. Bone Mineral Density Loss After Combat-Related Lower Extremity Amputation. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. 2014;28(4):238–244. doi:10.1097/bot.0b013e3182a66a8a.

Gailey, R, Harsch, P. Introduction to triathlon for the lower limb amputee triathlete. Prosthet Orthot Int Prosthetics and Orthotics International. 2009;33(3):242–255. doi:10.1080/03093640902995070.

Gailey, R. Review of secondary physical conditions associated with lower-limb amputation and long-term prosthesis use. The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development JRRD. 2008;45(1):15–30. doi:10.1682/jrrd.2006.11.0147.

Gailey, RS. Physical Therapy for Sports and Recreation. In Atlas of Amputations and Limb Deficiences. 3rd ed. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2004: 641–660.

Grabowski, AM, Mcgowan, CP, Mcdermott, WJ, Beale, MT, Kram, R, Herr, HM. Running-specific prostheses limit ground-force during sprinting. Biology Letters. 2009;6(2):201–204. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0729.

Haskell, WL, Lee, I-M, Pate, RR, Powell, KE, Blair, SN. Physical Activity and Public Health: Updated Recommendation for Adults From the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007;116(9):1081–1093. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.107.185649.

Hetzler, T, Smith, AE. Amputee Athletes, Part 2: Biomechanics and common running injuries. International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training. 2014;19(2):39–42. Available at:

Hetzler, T, Smith, AE, Rempe, D. Amputee Athletes, Part 1: Foundational Knowledge. International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training. 2014;19(2):33–38. Available at:

Highsmith, JT, Highsmith, MJ. Common skin pathology in LE prosthesis users. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. 2007;20(11):33–36. doi:10.1097/01720610-200711000-00018.

Hobara, H, Baum, BS, Kwon, H-J, et al. Amputee locomotion: Lower extremity loading using running-specific prostheses. Gait & Posture. 2014;39(1):386–390. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.08.010.

Kersting, UG, Gurney, JK, Lewis, S, Rasmussen, J. An individualized musculoskeletal model for the analysis of amputee running. International society of biomechanics. 2010:142–144.

Klenck, C, Gebke, K. Practical Management: Common Medical Problems in Disabled Athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2007;17(1):55–60. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3180302587.

Leetun, DT, Ireland, ML, Willson, JD, Ballantyne, BT, Davis, IM. Core Stability Measures as Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in Athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2004;36(6):926–934. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000128145.75199.c3.

Lloyd, CH, Stanhope, SJ, Davis, IS, Royer, TD. Strength asymmetry and osteoarthritis risk factors in unilateral trans-tibial, amputee gait. Gait & Posture. 2010;32(3):296–300. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.05.003.

Mauroy, G, Jaeger, DD, Vanmarsenille, J-M, Willems, PA. The bouncing mechanism of running in a transfemoral amputee wearing a blade prosthesis. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. 2012;15(sup1):357–359. doi:10.1080/10255842.2012.713721.

Mcgowan, CP, Grabowski, AM, Mcdermott, WJ, Herr, HM, Kram, R. Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 2012;9(73):1975–1982. doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0877.

Mengelkoch, LJ, Kahle, JT, Highsmith, MJ. Energy costs & performance of transtibial amputees & non-amputees during walking & running. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35:1223–1228. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1382056.

Moirenfeld, I, Ayalon, M, Ben‐Sira, D, Isakov, E. Isokinetic strength and endurance of the knee extensors and flexors in trans‐tibial amputees. Prosthetics and Orthotics International. 2000;24(3):221–225. doi:10.1080/03093640008726551.

Nolan, L. Carbon fibre prostheses and running in amputees: A review. Foot and Ankle Surgery. 2008;14(3):125–129. doi:10.1016/j.fas.2008.05.007.

Nolan, L. Lower limb strength in sports-active transtibial amputees. Prosthet Orthot Int Prosthetics and Orthotics International. 2009;33(3):230–241. doi:10.1080/03093640903082118.

Nolan, L. A training programme to improve hip strength in persons with lower limb amputation. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2012;44(3):241–248. doi:10.2340/16501977-0921.

Norvell, DC, Czerniecki, JM, Reiber, GE, Maynard, C, Pecoraro, JA, Weiss, NS. The prevalence of knee pain and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis among veteran traumatic amputees and nonamputees. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2005;86(3):487–493. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.04.034.

Paluska, SA, Schwenk, TL. Physical Activity and Mental Health. Sports Medicine. 2000;29(3):167–180. doi:10.2165/00007256-200029030-00003.

Penedo, FJ, Dahn, JR. Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 2005;18(2):189–193. doi:10.1097/00001504-200503000-00013.

Raya, MA, Gailey, RS, Fiebert, IM, Roach, KE. Impairment variables predicting activity limitation in individuals with lower limb amputation. Prosthet Orthot Int Prosthetics and Orthotics International. 2010;34(1):73–84. doi:10.3109/03093640903585008.

Saragiotto, BT, Yamato, TP, Junior, LCH, Rainbow, MJ, Davis, IS, Lopes, AD. What are the Main Risk Factors for Running-Related Injuries? Sports Med Sports Medicine. 2014;44(8):1153–1163. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0194-6.

Strike, SC, Wickett, O, Schoeman, M, Diss, CE. Mechanisms to absorb load in amputee running . Prosthetics and orthotics international. 2012;36(3):318–323. doi:10.1177/0309364612450577.

Tominaga, S, Sakuraba, K, Usui, F. The effects of changes in the sagittal plane alignment of running-specific transtibial prostheses on ground reaction forces. J Phys Ther Sci Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2015;27(5):1347–1351. doi:10.1589/jpts.27.1347.

Waetjen, L, Parker, M, Wilken, JM. The effects of altering initial ground contact in the running gait of an individual with transtibial amputation. Prosthetics and orthotics international. 2012;36(3):356–360. doi:10.1177/0309364611433353.

Willson, JD, Dougherty, CP, Ireland, ML, Davis, IM. Core stability and its relationship to lower extremity function and injury. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2005;13:316–325.

Willson, JD, Ratcliff, OM, Meardon, SA, Willy, RW. Influence of step length and landing pattern on patellofemoral joint kinetics during running. Scand J Med Sci Sports Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2015;25(6):736–743. doi:10.1111/sms.12383.

Willy, RW, Davis, IS. The Effect of a Hip-Strengthening Program on Mechanics During Running and During a Single-Leg Squat. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2011;41(9):625–632. doi:10.2519/jospt.2011.3470.

Wouters, I, Almonroeder, T, DeJarlais, B, Laack, A, Wilson, JD, Kernozek, TW. Effects of a movement training program on hip and knee joint frontal plane running mechanics. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2012;7(6):673–646.

Yazicioglu, K, Tugcu, I, Yilmaz, B, Goktepe, AS, Mohur, H. Osteoporosis: A factor on residual limb pain in traumatic trans-tibial amputations. Prosthet Orthot Int Prosthetics and Orthotics International. 2008;32(2):172–178. doi:10.1080/03093640802016316.